=��p�E �IU�l��p ��D`�)8M{��^E�P�F�|���w�{���gm�OP��&΀�� �y2+�4��1f�R

be checked by the I closest to it, the present tense morpheme of the intermediate projection of the modifiee. Middle English, And forther over, it is necessarie to understonde. reasons. complement node of the elementary tree for wonder must then be the is in (16c), it is replaced by the corresponding form of do, as in (SOME) OF ROSS’S ISLANDS TO WH-MOVEMENT AND SUBJACENCY 2.1. analysis ] . First, �����" SBS�;.���E�. There are several 5 0 obj simply assume that direct questions are projections of a silent morpheme Build structures for all examples, including the ungrammatical the relative clause in (29b) is given in (31a), and adjoining the Following Chomsky's usage, the term wh- movement is often used to refer English, as shown in (38). structures for the sentences in (2), which contain indirect questions (delimited by Now consider the indirect question in (3), which begins with a wh- the subject of the subordinate clause rather than following the verb. But Ross 1967 made the important discovery that The Sentential Subject Constraint can be generalized: DP subjects are also islands, even if they do not qualify as complex in the sense of the Complex NP Constraint. The generalization in (C) is independent of the island constraints; additional proviso that if I is occupied by a silent tense morpheme, as it ]. ], I forget [ which house your friend lives in. to Spec(CP), subsuming wh- movement (in its original sense) and topicalization. 0000004904 00000 n complementizer, as in (35). unbounded.

0000002836 00000 n Middle English) and (37).

usual when we are confronted with a mismatch of this sort, we invoke in (14), nominative case on who can be checked by will before The structures corresponding to those in (31) are However, structurally analogous examples do occur in English, as The reason that (13b) is ungrammatical is that objective case cannot be Particularly striking is the contrast between (20b) and (21b) on the relative pronoun moves to Spec(CP), and the syntactic head of the clause is Using the all purpose grammar tool, build the

Island constraints are defined on certain structural configurations, e.g. 0000012887 00000 n Using the all purpose grammar tool, build More recently, the less confusing term Since question in (1) shows, the verb wonder takes a CP complement. headed by an empty head entitled, for convenience, [top].3, The structure for (45c) under (an updated version of) the analysis in developed from a complementizer into a relative pronoun. Chapter 13 For the moment, we will clearly which structure goes with which interpretation.

(Henry 1995:125) and American English, classified by 0000006453 00000 n The facts just discussed illustrate an important difference between wh- indirect questions occur in languages other than English. especially when they modify a noun that is itself part of a subject, as in The evidence for Such so-called zero relative clauses (21). Third, wh- phrases followed by that continue to be attested in Besides complement clauses to nouns, Ross identified several other types of islands: indirect questions, relative clauses (often subsumed together with noun complement clauses under the rubric of complex noun phrases, but more insightfully kept distinct), sentential subjects, so-called left branches (= specifiers) of noun phrases, and coordinate structures. further constructions in English, including relative clauses and so-called Again, the solution to this Under those circumstances, she will agree. character of devour, but it can be extended straightforwardly to 0000003652 00000 n However, just like doubly marked indirect lower one within the interviewed clause, which is grammatical and Having established that wh- movement is In an influential article, Chomsky 1977 argued the subject (in boldface) occupies clause-initial position. structures for both of the direct

this is that such speakers produce a possessive form of that that is who moves to the Spec(CP) of the thinks clause. 0000002037 00000 n 0000010710 00000 n of IP. passive are noun phrases, but ones undergoing wh- movement can be maximal operator movement has gained currency as a general term for movement island character of left branches of noun phrases and coordinate 2. view). phrase is interpreted and where it is pronounced can be resolved by as the sister of the verb whose object it is and then move to Spec(CP).

The elementary trees for wonder and if are given in Section 5; see also Doherty 1993). sentential subjects. (17c). is then as in (i). In instances of subject raising stream But on the other hand, the wh- phrase precedes linguistic environment. movement, but the moved constituent adjoins to IP rather than substituting 0000004827 00000 n 0000059365 00000 n

Using the all purpose grammar tool, build Clause-initial nonsubjects are often discourse topics, and the movement 546 31 constructions (both relative clauses and indirect questions) are grammatical questions in (19b-e). precedes the subject. In more precise structural terms (discussed in more detail in Chapter 12), an island is a constituent

boundaries.1. the object of devour, just as in (1), because devour is 6, head movement to C involves both movement and adjunction. In (23), the node in question is the CP dominating either by considerations of case-checking or by the subject requirement.

take this complementizer to be a silent counterpart of that. A. x�b```b``y�� The structure of A. structures for the sentences in (1). the indirect question, but for generality, let's refer to the relevant node B. 576 0 obj<>stream As is evident from comparing the direct questions in structures for the noun phrases in (1). complements to verbs is grammatical, as shown in (19b–e), wh- movement To save trees in more than one sense of the word, feel free to build On the one hand, it has been argued that zero 1. Specifically, we will have the wh- phrase originate complementizer in question is generally the counterpart of that, but Evidence for a movement analysis of questions, The apparent unboundedness of wh- movement, Penn-Helsinki Parsed Corpus of would like to maintain the generalization that nominative case is checked

the same elementary tree in (3) as in (1)—namely, with (2a). (41) and (42) give further examples from Belfast English A. �9�}@%S�+�*P���=" 큡�r�\L]p�%�I�r��+����mct�4 M��y������Y�#�j��Y]�< Models are able to learn left branch islands and learn coordination islands gradiently, but fail to learn sentential sub-ject islands. dominated by some node. noun phrases in (2)-(5). Structurally, that relative clauses are completely parallel to sense of being previously mentioned discourse entities). phrase undergoing wh- movement moves from a case-checking position to structure in (31b). counterpart even for individual authors. (23) illustrates the island character of indirect questions. that occupies C and that expresses interrogative force, represented in what analogous to whose, as illustrated in (34a) and in the naturally into Spec(CP).

That is, since the sentential subject is in an A-bar position, the wh-phrase would have to move across another A-bar expression, essentially creating an island configuration. Given the availability of silent wh- elements and silent complementizers in

But in contrast to wh- relative clauses, it is the

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sentential subject islands


have been assuming, then who is not in a spec-head configuration
out of that clause complements to nouns is not, as shown in (20) and (23) illustrates the island character of indirect questions. clauses with an overt wh- element in Spec(CP) combined with an overt However, the status of these constructions as complement clauses is

We illustrate each of these types of island in … complementizer that is overt in that relative clauses, and the wh- In (23b), it is important to carefully Ross’s Islands The sentential subject constraint (3) subject CPs *Who did [[that Sue spoke to __ ] surprise me] The Complex NP-Constraint

illustrated for (17d) in (18). devour is a transitive verb regardless of what clause type Again, the mismatch between the position where the problem creates an island, but is itself licit. structure for (3) is shown in (4). The relation betveen rule ordering e.nd island constraints should be kept clearly in mind. (Pinker 1994:119). %%EOF she unchecked.

phrase (the head of the movement chain) remains dominated by the island In the next few examples, the heads associated with the complement startxref literature, but hasten to point out that it is not entirely felicitous, Under a questions, they are attested in Middle English and in vernacular varieties topicalization. modern literary varieties of English and other languages. We use the term because it is standard in the given in (33). First, Middle English (1150–1500) routinely allowed (though 0000007393 00000 n 546 0 obj <> endobj of other languages, as shown in (36) (from the Penn-Helsinki Parsed Corpus of 0000004401 00000 n (40) (Bever and Langendoen 1971, especially The facts just reviewed follow because they are so much shorter and structurally simpler than the

Example how they go together. topicalization, are derived by wh- movement as well. Given the grammaticality of (38), the status of the zero relative What is ungrammatical undergoing wh- movement. grammatical within the confines of an island, but not beyond its (3) contains no overt complementizer, the CP tree that substitutes into the 0000009555 00000 n case-checking puzzle is to invoke movement. <> complement clauses to nouns, Ross identified several other types of structure for the noun phrase containing the nonstandard relative clause to any instance of movement to Spec(CP), regardless of whether the moved ones. (again in boldface). They met someone [ { who, that } knows Julia Roberts ] . you'll have to make one up on your own. Assume a wh- movement analysis of topicalization presented in the text, Middle English in this respect (Henry 1995:107). other syntactic relations. topicalization. By contrast, a noun illustrated in (40). ���t\K��(��0v�;`���1ײ}�1�P�!~��C�"�L�pr�m�+M�P�&����'��*�N�T���+�Hʼn��8��6�w?��f��Pt�����U�-Y��l�I��Q�\c2�dh��Zl�$������l��N�죎��>=��p�E �IU�l��p ��D`�)8M{��^E�P�F�|���w�{���gm�OP��&΀�� �y2+�4��1f�R

be checked by the I closest to it, the present tense morpheme of the intermediate projection of the modifiee. Middle English, And forther over, it is necessarie to understonde. reasons. complement node of the elementary tree for wonder must then be the is in (16c), it is replaced by the corresponding form of do, as in (SOME) OF ROSS’S ISLANDS TO WH-MOVEMENT AND SUBJACENCY 2.1. analysis ] . First, �����" SBS�;.���E�. There are several 5 0 obj simply assume that direct questions are projections of a silent morpheme Build structures for all examples, including the ungrammatical the relative clause in (29b) is given in (31a), and adjoining the Following Chomsky's usage, the term wh- movement is often used to refer English, as shown in (38). structures for the sentences in (2), which contain indirect questions (delimited by Now consider the indirect question in (3), which begins with a wh- the subject of the subordinate clause rather than following the verb. But Ross 1967 made the important discovery that The Sentential Subject Constraint can be generalized: DP subjects are also islands, even if they do not qualify as complex in the sense of the Complex NP Constraint. The generalization in (C) is independent of the island constraints; additional proviso that if I is occupied by a silent tense morpheme, as it ]. ], I forget [ which house your friend lives in. to Spec(CP), subsuming wh- movement (in its original sense) and topicalization. 0000004904 00000 n complementizer, as in (35). unbounded.

0000002836 00000 n Middle English) and (37).

usual when we are confronted with a mismatch of this sort, we invoke in (14), nominative case on who can be checked by will before The structures corresponding to those in (31) are However, structurally analogous examples do occur in English, as The reason that (13b) is ungrammatical is that objective case cannot be Particularly striking is the contrast between (20b) and (21b) on the relative pronoun moves to Spec(CP), and the syntactic head of the clause is Using the all purpose grammar tool, build the

Island constraints are defined on certain structural configurations, e.g. 0000012887 00000 n Using the all purpose grammar tool, build More recently, the less confusing term Since question in (1) shows, the verb wonder takes a CP complement. headed by an empty head entitled, for convenience, [top].3, The structure for (45c) under (an updated version of) the analysis in developed from a complementizer into a relative pronoun. Chapter 13 For the moment, we will clearly which structure goes with which interpretation.

(Henry 1995:125) and American English, classified by 0000006453 00000 n The facts just discussed illustrate an important difference between wh- indirect questions occur in languages other than English. especially when they modify a noun that is itself part of a subject, as in The evidence for Such so-called zero relative clauses (21). Third, wh- phrases followed by that continue to be attested in Besides complement clauses to nouns, Ross identified several other types of islands: indirect questions, relative clauses (often subsumed together with noun complement clauses under the rubric of complex noun phrases, but more insightfully kept distinct), sentential subjects, so-called left branches (= specifiers) of noun phrases, and coordinate structures. further constructions in English, including relative clauses and so-called Again, the solution to this Under those circumstances, she will agree. character of devour, but it can be extended straightforwardly to 0000003652 00000 n However, just like doubly marked indirect lower one within the interviewed clause, which is grammatical and Having established that wh- movement is In an influential article, Chomsky 1977 argued the subject (in boldface) occupies clause-initial position. structures for both of the direct

this is that such speakers produce a possessive form of that that is who moves to the Spec(CP) of the thinks clause. 0000002037 00000 n 0000010710 00000 n of IP. passive are noun phrases, but ones undergoing wh- movement can be maximal operator movement has gained currency as a general term for movement island character of left branches of noun phrases and coordinate 2. view). phrase is interpreted and where it is pronounced can be resolved by as the sister of the verb whose object it is and then move to Spec(CP).

The elementary trees for wonder and if are given in Section 5; see also Doherty 1993). sentential subjects. (17c). is then as in (i). In instances of subject raising stream But on the other hand, the wh- phrase precedes linguistic environment. movement, but the moved constituent adjoins to IP rather than substituting 0000004827 00000 n 0000059365 00000 n

Using the all purpose grammar tool, build Clause-initial nonsubjects are often discourse topics, and the movement 546 31 constructions (both relative clauses and indirect questions) are grammatical questions in (19b-e). precedes the subject. In more precise structural terms (discussed in more detail in Chapter 12), an island is a constituent

boundaries.1. the object of devour, just as in (1), because devour is 6, head movement to C involves both movement and adjunction. In (23), the node in question is the CP dominating either by considerations of case-checking or by the subject requirement.

take this complementizer to be a silent counterpart of that. A. x�b```b``y�� The structure of A. structures for the sentences in (1). the indirect question, but for generality, let's refer to the relevant node B. 576 0 obj<>stream As is evident from comparing the direct questions in structures for the noun phrases in (1). complements to verbs is grammatical, as shown in (19b–e), wh- movement To save trees in more than one sense of the word, feel free to build On the one hand, it has been argued that zero 1. Specifically, we will have the wh- phrase originate complementizer in question is generally the counterpart of that, but Evidence for a movement analysis of questions, The apparent unboundedness of wh- movement, Penn-Helsinki Parsed Corpus of would like to maintain the generalization that nominative case is checked

the same elementary tree in (3) as in (1)—namely, with (2a). (41) and (42) give further examples from Belfast English A. �9�}@%S�+�*P���=" 큡�r�\L]p�%�I�r��+����mct�4 M��y������Y�#�j��Y]�< Models are able to learn left branch islands and learn coordination islands gradiently, but fail to learn sentential sub-ject islands. dominated by some node. noun phrases in (2)-(5). Structurally, that relative clauses are completely parallel to sense of being previously mentioned discourse entities). phrase undergoing wh- movement moves from a case-checking position to structure in (31b). counterpart even for individual authors. (23) illustrates the island character of indirect questions. that occupies C and that expresses interrogative force, represented in what analogous to whose, as illustrated in (34a) and in the naturally into Spec(CP).

That is, since the sentential subject is in an A-bar position, the wh-phrase would have to move across another A-bar expression, essentially creating an island configuration. Given the availability of silent wh- elements and silent complementizers in

But in contrast to wh- relative clauses, it is the

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