The early maintenance of long-term potentiation (LTP) was studied in the CA1 region of hippocampal slices from 12- to 18-day-old rats in a low-magnesium solution (0.1 mM). Hence, effective learning and generalization can be guaranteed if the subset of reward relevant dimensions were correctly identified for each state. It is shown that a network with synapses that have two stable states can dynamically learn with optimal storage efficiency, be a palimpsest, and maintain its (associative) memory for an indefinitely long time provided the coding level is low and depression is equilibrated against potentiation.
Physical review letters 2018 Dec 20;121(25):258302. For this purpose, we combine two prominent computational neuroscience principles, namely Binding by Synchrony and Reinforcement Learning. In fact, previous computational studies have shown that in order to optimize memory capacity, it is beneficial to have logarithmically distributed time constants, which can efficiently span a wide range of timescales 8,14.
These results raise the possibility that some forms of synaptic memory may be stored in a digital manner in the brain.
We consider these neurons in network configurations to investigate near-term technological potential and long-term physical limitations.
Jan 29 Examples of control theory in neuroscience (Bettina Hein, Laureline Logiaco) Slides In this work, we highlight a connection between metaplasticity models and the training process of binarized neural networks, a low-precision version of deep neural networks. The representation of odor in olfactory cortex (piriform) is distributive and unstructured and can only be afforded behavioral significance upon learning. We show that a synaptic weight can be modified via a superconducting flux-storage loop inductively coupled to the current bias of the synapse. signalling cascades downstream from cAMP production. Long-term memory traces regulate adaptive filtering, expectancy learning, conditioned reinforcer learning, incentive motivational learning, and habit learning.
Learning uncorrelated stimuli is expressed as a stochastic process produced by the neural activities on the synapses. Another level consists of feedback loops involving transcriptional, epigenetic and translational pathways, and autocrine actions of growth factors such as BDNF. Memory storage in mammalian neurons probably depends on both biochemical events and morphological alterations in dendrites. This permanence scheme is purely local, only requiring counting frames since a synapse's last weight increase, and computationally far simpler than other schemes requiring continual re-evaluation of each weight's importance to previously learned tasks/mappings, e.g., [1. Since binary synapses cannot concurrently learn new activity and retain knowledge of past activity, the synapse memory lifetime drops significantly .
Our model can also be readily extended to sequentially presented data, making full use of our palimpsest construction. The relative benefit of spacing increased with increased practice and with longer retention intervals. 55, 149-189, Context Shift and Protein Synthesis Inhibition Disrupt Long-Term Habituation after Spaced, but Not Massed, Training in the CrabChasmagnathus, Differential Induction of Long-Term Synaptic Facilitation by Spaced and Massed Applications of Serotonin at Sensory Neuron Synapses of Aplysia californica, Molecular Mechanisms Underlying a Unique Intermediate Phase of Memory in Aplysia, Massed and Spaced Learning in Honeybees: The Role of CS, US, the Intertrial Interval, and the Test Interval, Interaction between Amount and Pattern of Training in the Induction of Intermediate- and Long-Term Memory for Sensitization in Aplysia, Hebbian spike-driven synaptic plasticity for learning patterns of mean firing rates, Long-term depression induced by sensory deprivation during cortical map plasticity in vivo, Spike-driven Synaptic Plasticity for Learning Correlated Patterns of Mean Firing Rates, AMPA Receptor Trafficking at Excitatory Synapses, Neural network - Hardware implementation - Neuromorphic VLSI, Storing sparse random patterns with cascade synapses. We demonstrate that our combined model has significant computational advantages over the original network without synchrony, in terms of both stability and plasticity. Optical communication achieves high fanout and short delay advantageous for information integration in neural systems. Compared to digital logic or quantum computing, device tolerances are relaxed. Cortical map plasticity is thought to involve long-term depression (LTD) of cortical synapses, but direct evidence for LTD during plasticity or learning in vivo is lacking. In area of CA1 of the hippocampus, at least two phases of long-term potentiation (LTP) can be isolated: an early decremental component referred to as short-term potentiation (STP), which precedes a long-lasting, nondecremental component commonly considered to be stable LTP. In order to record the stream of autobiographical information that defines our unique personal history, our brains must form durable memories from single brief exposures to the patterned stimuli that impinge on them continuously throughout life. However, all of their analyses were based on data arithmetically averaged over subjects. Learn more.
While deep learning has led to remarkable advances across diverse applications, it struggles in domains where the data distribution changes over the course of learning. This cascade model combines high levels of memory storage with long retention times and significantly outperforms alternative models. Two of Sparsey's essential properties are: i) information is represented in the form of fixed-size sparse distributed representations (SDRs); and ii) its fixed-time learning algorithm maps more similar inputs to more highly intersecting SDRs. Such a synapse combines the advantages of plastic synapses with those of more rigid synapses, outperforming the models in which each synapse is characterized by a single predeflned degree of plasticity. We support our approach with a theoretical analysis on a tractable task. An opaque screen moving overhead elicits an escape response in the crab Chasmagnathus that after a few presentations habituates for a long period (long-term habituation, LTH). Using a recurrent network model, we explore whether this could be due to an underlying diversity in their synaptic plasticity. These models have shown to have significant computational advantages over models with a single timescale. Neurobiol. FPT problems in these variables require solving multidimensional partial differential or integral equations. Some models of Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning contain internal paradoxes that can be traced to an inadequate formulation of how mechanisms of short- and long-term memory work together to control the shifting balance between the processing of expected and unexpected events. LTP expression is not affected by exploration of familiar environments.
Different implementations of replay have been proposed that alleviate catastrophic forgetting in connectionists architectures via the re-occurrence of (latent representations of) input sequences and that functionally resemble mechanisms of hippocampal replay in the mammalian brain. As a downside of these mechanisms, learning is hampered when consolidation is triggered prematurely by interleaving easy and difficult tasks, consistent with human psychophysical experiments. Furthermore, the aftereffects of the high-frequency stimulation selectively impaired the old rats' spontaneous alternation behavior on a T-maze. For this purpose, we combine two prominent computational neuroscience principles, namely Binding by Synchrony and Reinforcement Learning. A systematic overview of biological and artificial neural systems is given, along with their related critical mechanisms.
Our approach utilizes the high capacity of a neural network more efficiently and does not require storing the previously learned data that might raise privacy concerns. During development, as more spine synapses formed with increasing sizes and expression of AMPARs and NMDARs, shaft synapses exhibited moderate reduction in density with largely unchanged sizes and receptor expression. These effects, when combined with the dependence of synaptic plasticity on the post-synaptic depolarization, produce the non-monotonic learning rule needed for storing correlated patterns of mean rates. Synaptic plasticity is believed to underlie the formation of appropriate patterns of connectivity that stabilize stimulus-selective reverberations in the cortex.
A model of dynamic Muscinelli SP, Gerstner W, Schwalger T. Single neuron properties shape chaotic dynamics in random neural networks.
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