The experiments are performed using version 8.2 of the MetUM. Mary Fallin declared a state of emergency for 25 Oklahoma counties that were hit hardest by the storm. The 50‐m simulation was nested within a 5 km simulation, the initial conditions for which were provided by an operational regional analysis. At that point, it began to grow rapidly in width, and a second brief area of EF4 damage was noted near South May Avenue, where several homes were leveled, and one was swept clean from its foundation (this home was determined to have been nailed, rather than bolted to its foundation). There is a strong updraft located near the hook‐echo. We especially thank Lans Rothfusz who coordinated the first few hectic days of the survey. By improving initial conditions using data assimilation on the limited area domains, there exists a real possibility of using similar high‐resolution simulations to provide skilful forecasts that could result in longer‐lead‐time warnings of severe convective weather, or the ability to discriminate between tornadic and non‐tornadic storm environments. Follow-up surveys were completed by the original surveyors and additional staff from the NWC starting on 22 May 2013 and continued for the next several days; in all about 25 people participated in ground surveys.  The nearby Moore Cemetery was heavily damaged as well. Very large hail and tornadoes were both expected with these supercells, with the possibility of a few strong tornadoes. EF-scale documentation defines assignment of an EF5 rating when a “well constructed” home is swept clean from its foundation (W06). Most of the fatalities from the tornado occurred in the Plaza Towers neighborhood of Moore. Similar rapid drops in pressure are not seen in the US2 and 500 m simulations, because these relatively‐coarse gridlengths are not fine enough to resolve tornado‐like vortices. 4b). 1). Aerial imagery collected by the Civil Air Patrol was also used to help finalize ratings. Completely devastated blocks sit right across the street from neighborhoods that were largely spared. 4a). The tornado impacted many vehicles that were parked at the medical center (Fig.
 The tornado was noticeably narrower at this point, but was still causing a continuous swath of EF4 damage to numerous homes as it moved through multiple subdivisions. (2014), simulated the 8 May 2003 Oklahoma City supercell using the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) with four one‐way nested grids of 9 km, 1 km, 100 m and 50 m horizontal grid spacing. Looking at the meridional wind component along the same cross‐section (Figure 4(c)) shows that the updraft is associated with a wide area of rotation at mid‐levels. A third vortex occurs to the east of the observed EF5 tornado (see Figure 1(f)) and persists for about 15 min.
A 3‐day stretch of severe weather across the Great Plains from 18–20 May 2013 produced the most deadly and devastating tornado of the year in the United States on 20 May affecting Moore, Oklahoma. File:May 20, 2013 Moore, Oklahoma tornado.JPG to appear as POTD. , The tornado maintained EF3 intensity as it crossed the Canadian River into Cleveland County, and a decommissioned U.S. 62/U.S.
The use of 100 m simulations in this fashion, or through use of real‐time (ensemble) simulations, could help improve the prediction of tornado outbreaks by identifying enhanced risk regions where tornadoes may occur and help reduce the high false alarm rate of tornado warnings by discriminating between tornadic and non‐tornadic events. Davies‐Jones and Brooks, 1993; Adlerman et al., 1999). However, all of the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA's) National Weather Service (NWS) tornado warnings are based upon detection by observers or the presence of a tornado vortex signature in radar data (Brotzge and Donner, 2013) meaning that the threat has to exist before a warning is issued, which limits further improvements in lead time unless an alternative method is found to warn before the threat exists. Highland East Jr. High's main building was spared, but the separate gymnasium building was completely destroyed, and a set of lockers from the structure was lofted and thrown a considerable distance into a nearby neighborhood.
By continuing to use our website, you are agreeing to, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-14-00033.1, https://ams.confex.com/ams/94Annual/webprogram/Paper233734.html, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00006.1, http://www.fema.gov/media-library/assets/documents/647, http://google.org/crisismap/2013-oklahoma-tornado, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0434(2002)017<0582:TDSAMO>2.0.CO;2, https://ams.confex.com/ams/pdfpapers/141534.pdf, https://ams.confex.com/ams/26SLS/webprogram/Paper211662.html, https://ams.confex.com/ams/94Annual/webprogram/Paper241554.html, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0434(2002)017<0362:TTOMEV>2.0.CO;2, http://www.wdtb.noaa.gov/courses/EF-scale/, Subseasonal prediction with and without a well-represented stratosphere in CESM1, Adaptation of the Predicted Particles Properties (P3) microphysics scheme for large-scale numerical weather prediction. Locations of Briarwood Elementary School, PTES, and MMC are shown. The 4.4 km model (US4) was one‐way nested within the Met Office global model and covers the Contiguous United States (CONUS).  It followed a roughly similar track to the deadlier 1999 Bridge Creek–Moore tornado, which was smaller in size but just as severe; however, very few homes and neither of the stricken schools in the area had purpose-built storm shelters in the intervening years since the earlier tornado struck Moore. Thus, providing tornado warnings based on these simulations may increase the warning lead time, however, the false alarm rate could also increase.
The southern portion of Highland East Junior High School was destroyed, but because of adequate sheltering, injuries were few. Upon the office's discovery that some victims were mistakenly counted twice due to communication errors made by Moore rescue response units that the bodies were admitted to area funeral homes (nearly all of the deceased were actually transported to the examiner's office in Oklahoma City), the actual number was revised downward and later confirmed at 24 tornado victims and two indirect victims. Doan, who was two months pregnant with her third child at the time, suffered severe injuries to her back, but did not lose the baby. 4d). A preliminary study of Briarwood Elementary School conducted in September 2013 by a group of structural engineers found some structural deficiencies that led to its collapse during the tornado. Remarkably, no fatalities occurred at the school. One of these produced a tornado that touched down in Newcastle and rapidly turned violent.
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